Welcome to my Metazoic site! This site discusses the existence of the creatures to come along after humans will be extinct. I first became interested in a world after man when I acquired my first copy of Dougal Dixon's After Man: A Zoology of the Future in 1992. However, I unwittingly created creatures that did not exist from the time I was about 8 years old. But it was after I obtained a copy of that book (now a collector's item) that I decided to take these same creatures I created as a child and make them more realistic in an evolutionary sense. Though it may be hard for a lot of us to grasp, humans will soon become extinct. One of the biggest factors of how this will happen is the current overpopulation rate. Which is why I don't contribute to the population. I created this world with little more than mammals fulfilling all ecological niches with the help of some friends. I even gave the era of the age after man a name, I called it the Metazoic, derived from the words for "After-era" (Meta, meaning after, and zoic meaning era). We are now in the Cenozoic era. To view all the animals I have created since I began this project, you can go to the "Meet the Mammals" section of this site. To discuss your own ideas about what you think will happen in the future world, and share your ideas with others, please feel free to leave a comment.
One more thing, some of you may find this site quite offensive, and you have a right to your own opinion. But please respect my right to have an opinion too. I'm not saying there is no GOD, I believe it was HIM who got the ball rolling. But I believe after that, evolution took over. There is so much more evidence of evolution than there is of creation. Even that going on right under our noses. Other than that, enjoy yourself and visit our many links.
Tuesday, April 17, 2018
What do you all think? Perhaps a potential for some kind of bird-eating rat to evolve in the future?
Wednesday, April 4, 2018
Right now, I am turning the Meet The Mammals section into basically nothing more than a visual checklist. Some of these animals I've never drawn or colored before, so they are just as much a surprise to me as they are to new viewers. Yeah, right now I'm about the numbers. But I do believe each animal should have it's own personality. For the time being, I am putting some pics up on the Facebook group, and there I will be discussing characteristics of these animals and what makes them unique. If you haven't joined the group yet, please do so at this link: https://www.facebook.com/groups/SpeculativeEvolution/ This is not the page, I gave that up. This is a group where you can post ideas, criticisms, other group activities, you can also meet others that share a common interest. I encourage anyone interested in speculative biology to join.
I would say I'll get back to the Family of the Week next week, but I don't know. I kindof really enjoy working on these mammal families. Whichever one I work on next will be a surprise, and based on what I feel like working on. Though I think the next family I work on, I'd like to be a marsupial family. Maybe the bandicoots. I did a lot of tweaking with them. But right now, I am busy with another family group, and I will be posting that one very soon. This is fun, but at the same time, it is difficult. But hey! If it was easy, it wouldn't be a challenge! Right?! LOL!
Monday, March 12, 2018
Though these animals resemble modern apes in almost every way, their closest modern relatives are baboons, like the mandrill.
This family is divided into 2 subfamilies. The Monaciinae all resemble modern apes with no external tail. The Urosimiinae more closely resembles monkeys or lemurs than apes, most have more elongated heads and long tails. The Urosimiines are also the most carnivorous of the Metazoic apes. Castosarchus is even built for killing, with long, razor-sharp claws on the hands and a 6-inch retractable claw on the first digits of each hind foot for rendering. The fangs are as much as 5 inches long, and the jaws exude an extremely powerful bite, useful for tearing the flesh off even the largest gigantelopes, and crushing tendon and bones. They hunt in large packs, much like modern lions or wolves. Larger prey is killed by simply being eaten. Smaller prey, like smaller antelope, are usually grasped with the claws and the skull or vertebrae is crushed by the ape's jaws while being disemboweled using the rear claws.
The smallest apes in the Metazoic are those in the genus Arbrariel. These tiny, delicate and graceful little apes more resemble lemurs. But they are no bigger than an average-sized house cat. The largest species in fact weighs no more than 5 pounds maximum. They are omnivorous, feeding on insects, leaves and fruits. Their lifestyle is a lot like those of modern gibbons. They swing from branch to branch and tree to tree using their arms, in a motion we refer to as "brachiation". For their small size, these animals can swing an amazing 30 feet in a single leap. The tail is also prehensile, but only used when necessary. Most of the time, it is carried curled up above the body. Also like gibbons, these diminutive apes communicate with other groups with loud vocal songs. These animals spend nearly 100% of their time in the tree canopy, almost never reaching ground levels.
The largest apes in the Metazoic are those in the genus Monacium. These apes more closely resembles modern gorillas. Like gorillas, they are almost purely vegetarian. Only very occasionally feeding on insects as a source of protein. Unlike modern gorillas, Monacium apes have colorful patterns on the head, particularly the males during the breeding season. The colors are a warning to other males that he is ready to battle for his females. These apes are not very active, so usually the bright colors on the head and face are enough to ward off other intruding males. Rarely do they engage in physical combat. After the breeding season is over, the colors fade and the males take on the usual dark black fur that is typical of these species. M. fosseyi is the largest species, standing up to 9 feet tall, and weighing almost a ton. Females of these species are about half that size.
Apes in the Metazoic have few predators, mostly because they live high up in the trees, or in some of the most remote, inaccessible areas in their range. But there are some predators that brave the elements and can capture and feed on these animals. Castosarchus, as adults, have almost no enemies. The occasional Spathodon may take a weakened adult, but usually will hesitate even to do that for fear of the ape's defenses. Arbrariel may be taken by deinognathids like Elaphictis, pythons, civets, caroroos, and predatory bats. Armasenex is famously prey for such creatures as Dryptopithecus, which often lives in close association with these apes. And Chortoperegrina, which spends nearly 100% of it's time at ground level on the savanna, is often prey for a large variety of carnivores, like mongooses, snakes, monitor lizards, crocodiles, and especially, larger deinognathids.
To view this family, follow this link.
Monday, February 26, 2018
The largest species are in the genus Carnopapio. The largest species, C. grandis, stands an amazing 9 feet tall. Though they do not hesitate to hunt some small animals, they mostly scavenge the kills of other larger predators. Particularly those of Castosarchus. In fact, Carnopapio always lives in close proximity to Castosarchus territories. Since Castosarchus chiefly feeds on large antelopes, there is always plenty for the Carnopapio monkeys to scavenge. Carnopapio is also bipedal, and walk around in very bird-like fashion. This gives them an advantage over most other scavengers, since they are better able to see over the tall grass of their habitat. Carnopapio lives in large groups, usually 10-15 strong.
The smallest of these monkeys is in the genus Colobonyx. These are tiny monkeys, which spend almost 100% of their time in the trees. At night, they usually find a hollow to huddle in. During the day, they scamper through the trees, able to make 20-foot jumps from one tree to another. They feed primarily on insects and fruits. Their groups are rather large too, usually numbering up to 50 individuals. Females dominate their society. These little monkeys move much like modern monkeys do, using their hind legs to push them off the branches, and gripping the landing spot with their bare pads and long claws. The tail is not prehensile, and usually held upward while the monkeys are in motion. The tail is brightly colored, and most vivid in the higher ranking animals in their group.
The most unusual monkey in this group is in the genus Alesimia, which has a long, flexible gliding membrane that unfolds when the monkey leaps, much like today's flying squirrels. Also like flying squirrels, these monkeys have flat tails and they are capable of flattening out their body, to make it easier to glide and to go much further than the average monkey can with just their legs. These monkeys live in smaller groups, usually small family groups. Their glides can carry these monkeys as far as 200 feet in a single bound. Their sharp, curved claws make landing and clinging to the tree trunks they typically land on, a breeze.
The most carnivorous member of this family is Dryptopithecus. These monkeys do not favor leaping from one branch to another, they prefer to use brachiation, like modern gibbons, when moving through the trees. Their long arms aid them in moving gracefully through the tree branches. They hunt down rather large prey, up to the size of Armasenex. They kill their prey by eating them alive. Up to 5 adults typically go out hunting game, bringing morsels home to their family, which may be waiting in nearby branches. The hunting party is led by the dominant male and female, with beta males and females lagging behind. They close in when their prey is spotted, usually with one member of the hunting team first attacking and subduing the prey from behind, and the rest of the hunting team closing in to tear the prey apart. Unlike modern hunting primates like chimpanzees and baboons, these monkeys are quiet hunters, barely making a sound when stalking their prey. They communicate most notably during a hunt, with series of short clicks that somewhat resembles morse code.
Like modern monkeys, these animals have a whole host of predators. Some of the biggest are the larger viverrids and deinognathids, such as Spathodon and Elaphictis. But they can also fall prey to larger snakes, crocodiles, predatory bats, and even monitor lizards. Because most of these monkeys live in groups, one individual is usually assigned the duty of keeping watch for predators as the rest of the groups feed, or relax. It is not always the same individual, as with all other animal groups. But it is usually given to a lower-ranking member that is still very alert and quick to react.
Monday, February 19, 2018
All species in this family are carnivorous, though while some species are strictly piscivorous, some will feed on other smaller mammals, including other sea monkeys. Phocinus has the most varied diet in this family. It is also the largest and heaviest species in this family, with a total length of about 25 feet long, including the tail. These animals use their large, powerful jaws to crush the head and neck bones of their prey, then they tear chunks out of the flesh using shaking motions underwater. Prey consists of fish, as well as oceanic birds and bats, other sea monkeys, seals, and even occasional deer who wander near the ocean.
The smallest species in the family are in the genus Delphinadapis, with a total length of about 3-4 feet long, including the tail. Like modern dolphins, these animals' preferred method of locomotion is to porpoise through the water, and they are good at it. Porpoising practically doubles their swimming speed, and it shocks fish to congregate into tight groups for easy pickings. These animals are very intelligent, much like modern dolphins. Delphinadapis is also among the fastest swimming pentadactyls, with the ability to reach speeds of up to 45 MPH. Similar in size and lifestyle is Uropinnaps. Though in Uropinnaps, the body is much longer and more slender than in Delphinadapis.
The most unusual member of this family is Leptorca, also known as the spinner sea-monkey. As their name suggests, they spin in the air as they leap out of the water. They also use this spinning motion while swimming. This is somewhat reminiscent of modern sea lions, and like sea lions, this motion helps these animals view their surroundings at all angles. They are the most slender of the sea monkeys, with the longest muzzle. The muzzle is filled with long, sharp teeth, which enables them to grab fish, squid, and even jellyfish. They will also probe in crevices to hunt prey like crabs and shrimp. The flesh at the tip of their muzzle is very sensitive, so much so that they can detect prey in their hiding places just by feeling their vibrations in the water.
Megalobracchium has the most primitive foreflippers, which still resemble the arms of land-dwelling pentadactyls. The flippers are rather short themselves, but powerful. The hands are also still capable of grasping prey, and sometimes, this sea monkey will use their flexible hands to grasp large rocks that they can use to crush open shellfish, such as crabs and lobster, and clams.
Predators of these sea monkeys are basically anything that can capture them; both on land and in the ocean. Giant sea genets are perhaps one of their deadliest enemies. As are larger sea monkeys. Sharks will also prey on these animals. Sometimes even sea-going crocodiles. On land, more often the young are taken by foxes, civets, and even deinognathids. Though rarely are the adults taken by land-based predators. Sometimes there are exceptions even to that rule. A sickened adult may be taken by the larger deinognathids. Swimming is often the best defense for these sea monkeys. Though they can use their sharp teeth and powerful jaws as defensive weapons as well.
To view this family, go to this link.
Wednesday, February 7, 2018
Most species in this family are ground-dwellers, mostly in arid regions. The folds in the palms and soles help grip the loose, sandy ground they live on, and in the case of the tree-dwelling species, helps them get a good grip on the tree trunks they prefer, which is so smooth, it's almost glass-like and slippery in the moist climate. The most arboreal species in this family are Pholidobata and Lepidopus, who live among specific varieties of eucalyptus trees with these extremely smooth trunks, feed on the toxic leaves, and sleep curled up in the highest branches. These lemurs are not active leapers, but spend nearly 100% of their time in the trees, almost never coming to the ground levels. These species are almost strict vegetarians, only occasionally feeding on insects and grubs.
Different species have varying levels of omnivory. Parapithecia is the most carnivorous species. Though meat only makes up less than 50% of this animal's diet. The large claws on their feet are as long as 6 inches, sharp and curved, and used to disembowel prey. The hind feet are elongate, much longer than in any other species in this family, and aid this animal in leaping up to 5 times their own body length. Occasionally, these huge lemurs will hunt such prey as antelope and therapeds. Though they scavenge kills by other animals just about as often as they hunt, and they feed on leaves, fruits and grasses more often than they consume meat.
The most varied genus is Decarus, most of which are ground-dwellers, but a few of these species also inhabit the trees, though they prefer to live at much lower levels than Pholidobata and Lepidopus. They are also much active leapers, with a much more varied diet. Most of the ground-dwellers in this genus prefer arid and savanna lands. Though D. epaulettus, D. picta and D. alienus prefer the wetter rainforest climates. D. epaulettus also lives in the highest elevations among members of this family. The ruffles on the animal's upper back help keep them warmer in the cool mountain climates.
Like the majority of lemurs, these animals are social creatures, living in small family groups, usually consisting of a dominant male, a few females, a subordinate male and young. Communication consists of calls. Pholidobata has the loudest calls, resembling those of a child crying. Each individual call lasts as long as a minute, and are generally given by the males. Parapithecia and it's close relatives are almost strictly ground-dwelling, only occasionally retreating to the trees when danger threatens. They communicate with other families with loud, whooping calls that carry all across several miles of savanna. Breeding for these animals occurs only once a year, and usually a single cub is born to each female, though all females in the family unit may be bred at the same time.
Predators of these lemurs are quite a few. Various carnivores like foxes, mongooses and vulpemustelids may take these lemurs if they can capture them. Large, predatory bats may also take the tree-dwelling species. Deinognathids are also major predators of these lemurs. Spathodon is the greatest enemy of Parapithecia and it's closest relatives. In defense, these animals will run, kicking back with their sharp claws, most of the time, they will seek refuge up a tree, or in burrows or bushes. To view this family, follow this link.
Sunday, October 9, 2016
Notice how the lower jaw has long folds for the canines to remain protected when the jaws are shut? This is an interesting feature, and would be good to keep the canines from breaking when the animal is relaxing. However, I found that these animals had a bite force that is weaker than that of a housecat. The reason is because their canines rooted so far back in their head that any intense pressure would have forced the roots of their teeth to put too much pressure on their brain cavity, or would have even crushed their brain. So, when creating any sabre-toothed futuristic beast, one has to take things like this in consideration.
Well, I took the concept of Thylacosmilus, as well as the cat-like Smilodon, and combined them together for one of my most famous sabre-toothed inhabitants of the Metazoic, Spathodon. This creature probably would have been much scarier than it's father species, Deinognathus. It's just the right size to prey on humans, is a sharp-eyed hunter, and has 14-24 inch long fangs, followed by a series of smaller fangs that get progressively smaller in it's jaws. So, for them, not all the pressure would be placed on the front canines. Just the initial stab. But that would be immediately followed by several pokes from the animal's post-canine teeth. They go for the throat of their prey usually. For smaller prey, they use their powerful arms to flip their prey over, and use their long canines to rip open the belly.
The canines of Spathodon would not be rooted as far into their skull as Thylacosmilus, but still rooted up into what would be their sinus cavity, which are absent in these animals. I think the disproportionately large head of Spathodon would allow plenty of growth and rooting for their elongated canines. Anyways, here is Spathodon revamped;
Notice the subtle changes. The forehead is quite more rounded and bumpier, and the lower lips extend down to cover the canines.
Tuesday, April 5, 2016
I'd just basically like to know if I did decide to put some info up on this site, what would you all like to see? Share your thoughts and post me a comment below. Also, I am probably not going to be taking any more requests for which families to add next to the Meet The Mammals section. People seem to get too impatient, and I cannot promise when a group will be finished and posted onto the page. I am going to limit requests for families only to those people who donate to our site. Make a $20 donation, and I will do whatever family you want to see and put it up on here. That will also get it done quicker too. But no more freebie requests. I will update the donation link today. I think I might go through Patreon. But whatever happens with that, I will continue to work on the Meet The Mammals section at my own pace for now.
You can now voice your opinion on any of the pages. Please feel free to share your ideas, if you think something in the drawings needs improvement, or you want to elaborate on them, or whathaveyou, let me know. Post a comment down below and I will get back to you. I have also updated the Contact Us form on this site, my apologies to those who have tried to contact me through that and it didn't go through. Now, it has been fixed and should get better.
Friday, November 27, 2015
#2. There were originally more family groups for Metazoica, about a dozen of which never actually made it into today's checklist. When I first started to create the mammals of the future, I went wild with ideas. Sometimes too wild. When I first created the original checklist in 1994, there were family groups on there that you will not find in the checklist of today. They were groups that I just could not find an empty niche in the Metazoic for. So, I threw them away.
#3. The odd names you see given as common names of the mammals of the Metazoic were thought up one rainy day by me and my sis in 1995. I got tired of simply calling all the mammals on my list by their latin names, so my sis and I began coming up with the silliest words we could think of as common names for these animals on one boring, rainy day in the summer of 1995 when we could find nothing else to do. Some work out well! Some are just silly, but I kept them anyways because even some modern animals have silly names (case in point, the aye-aye).
#4. It was actually my interest in Batman characters that jump-started the Metazoic project. In 1992, I worked on a series of my own Batman comics, using animal figures instead of people. But modern mammals are too boring to play Batman characters. So, I created my own, most of them lemurs, based on physical and psychological characteristics of the original characters. Later on, when I decided not to use most of the animals I created specifically for those stories, I made them more scientifically accurate and thought up a world where they could fit in, and thus Metazoica was born.
#5. Over the years, the mammals of the Metazoic have literally "evolved" in my mind. If you'll pardon the expression, the animals that you see on this site today are not the same animals they were when I first created them. Some have changed forms over the years many times, and even changed families. I've been trying for the past 23 years to make these animals as scientifically accurate as I can. My biggest inspiration to motion towards accuracy came when I met Metalraptor in 2009. I still give him credit for that.
#6. The Case of the Missing Species. My very first complete checklist for the mammals of the Metazoic was typed on a Mac computer. But I got rid of the Mac in 1997 when I had a terrible time trying to find good software for it. Well, I had to transfer everything from a Mac disk to a PC disk, one of those things was my Metazoic checklist. I had to retype the list all over again, which was a project I set aside in November of 1997. It really took me a total of 2 weeks to complete the list. Unfortunately in the middle of working on that list, I received the shattering news that Michael Hutchence (INXS's lead singer) died. I was so distraught as I loved that man more than life it's self, that I was like a zombie for the rest of that night. I kept typing, but my mind was not on the work. To this day, because of that, I believe whole-heartedly that there are some species that was on that Mac disk checklist that I accidentally never listed on the PC disk checklist and are now lost forever. (and just so you know, yes I did meet him, and fell in love)
#7. Originally I was content to go with Dixon's predatory rats idea as the Metazoic's apex predators, but in 1994 that changed. That was when I worked extensively on the Deinognathids, and made them the Metazoic's top predators.
#8. I have used models of many other animals as ideas for the Metazoic. In my will to create a world with 10,000+ species of mammals, filling every niche, I have used models of fictitious animals that have been presented in Dixon's other evolution books, as well as books about animals of other worlds, including Star Wars. Though I have gradually drowned those out.
#9. The dark background on my Metazoic website is meant to give the illusion of the nighthouse at a zoo. It was kindof inspired by the original Tyrannosaur scene in Jurassic Park 1. The fact the dinosaur went hunting at night made it a bit scarier. I utilized that feeling on my Metazoic website, which is why I always present the site in black, or in this case, charcoal.
#10. I've been thinking for some time about putting up a Metazoic print book. Though such a project would be expensive, to say the least, I thought about having every animal presented on the checklist in the book, in full color. If I do go through with that project, it will become available on UMG Productions (www.umgproductions.com) and on Amazon. But again, it won't be cheap.
Tuesday, November 10, 2015
Well, bear with me in the Meet the Mammals section, as that one is going to take a while to complete. I first want to get up all the drawings I have completed already, and then I have been asked to work on the gerbbucks next. But I want to get up what I have already done. It could take months to get to the gerbbucks, as I had already begun another group before I was asked to do the gerbbucks. So, I want to complete that group before I get to the gerbbucks. But I will get to them. Keep your eyes on the Meet the Mammals page. Each time one is completed and put up, you will see their family name turn into a clickable link. Please be patient with me, as I am working on all this alone and I want to have the pics looking good before I put them up. Each one needs to at least tell a story of some kind about that animal's lifestyle. But all-in-all, the pages are done being transferred. And I will continue to post more updates as I can.
Wednesday, November 4, 2015
Since I am putting everything here, the old site will be taken down soon, and all pics and pages will be moved here. I will also do all I can to keep up the blog here. I know I haven't written in this blog for a while, and I took down all the posts I found to be offensive to my viewers. At my age, I don't need to feel such anger and hatred! All comments will still be welcome. It will take a while for me to move everything here, so please bear with me during this transition. I will eventually move the domain to this blog. The navigation bars are on the left side of the screen and they will take you to what ever page you wish to view. I will put up the Meet The Mammals section soon. I am still working on it. But I am thinking it will be more like a visual checklist, rather than tell the complete stories about each species. I have another plan for that! ;)
I will get started again with the Family of the Week as soon as I am done. My apologies for not working on that lately. So many things have been going on, and I am about to get married and move yet again. I've moved like 3 times since my last post on this blog!! I will also keep you all up to date as much as I can with interesting videos and articles I can find. I scour all over the internet for just such goodies. So please, stay tuned, and tell me what you think of this idea! As I said before, I welcome your comments. Also, if you want to contribute to this site, I can add more authors to this blog. You will be able to make pages to display your work, and also write articles to this blog as well. Also, if you have a favorite link you'd like to see on the sidebar, please, let me know! I will check it out and add it to our new site.
Saturday, January 28, 2012
Instead of mentioning individual species, I thought I would talk about the different sub-families in this group. The sub-family Promonsamiinae is made up of river-dwelling lemurs. That is, they prefer the rushing river waters. Some inhabit such areas as ponds and lakes as well. These lemurs feed mostly on fish and crayfish, and can easily find them using their sharp eyes underwater. Most species actively swim to hunt for prey, but sometimes they will just sit at the edge of the river or stream and snatch a fish as it swims within reach, usually using their claws to grasp the fish, and carry it in their mouths to an isolated spot to be consumed. Sometimes they will even wade like raccoons, using their hands to feel for prey. Monsamogale also feeds on aquatic insects. These are the smallest members of this family. When roosting or raising young, these lemurs use a cavern under a tree, or a bush, or an abandoned burrow of another animal. When threatened, these lemurs either take to the deepest part of the water, or may climb a tree until the danger passes. Callolemur is the largest land-based species in this family, but it is also less aquatic than other species in this sub-family. This species prefers to live in rocky outcroppings, and feed on bird eggs and fledgelings, as well as grass, berries and lichens. This sub-family has better developed legs, feet and hands than the species in the Frissinae, and still retreat to trees when necessary.
The sub-family Frissinae is made up of mostly oceanic species. One species, Indra, lives in Antarctica, along with Frissa. But unlike Frissa, Indra is not an active swimmer, and cannot get away from Antarctica when winter hits. Instead, it eats whatever it can find during the summer, and stores fat for when winter comes so it can retreat to a burrow and hibernate. It has a much thicker coat than any other species in this family, much thicker than we would see in modern chinchillas. It gathers up moss and fur and builds a warm nest usually 6 feet underground, away from blizzard winds, and settles for the winter. Frissa however spends it's winters away from Antarctica, on warmer, remote islands nearby. The species in this sub-family are deeper divers than their river and lake based relatives are, often capable of diving as far as 2000 feet below the surface. Rhynchocebus is specialized in that it is the only lemur to produce musk from the glands at the base of the tail. the musk is a defensive mechanism, to make it's self seem unsavory to predators. Both Rhynchocebus and Moloja are ambidextrous, that is they can inhabit either rivers or the ocean. Inland specimens of Moloja are also mostly nocturnal, whereas near the coast, they are more active during the day. Most species in this sub-family are characterized by the legs being even more reduced in size than in the Promonsamiinae, more resembling the flippers like we see in seals and sea lions. As a consequence, these animals cannot climb trees at all.
The sub-family Endendrinae are jungle animals that live in the trees. They are not as active leapers as other lemurs are, and usually live at lower levels of the trees than most other lemurs. Some even spend most of their time on or near the ground, but they are also not swimmers, like the other 2 subfamilies. The legs are shorter than in any other tree-climbing lemurs, but they are still fairly good leapers. Unlike any other lemur, the legs are of the same length. They mostly rely on their claws to keep them in the branches, as their hands are not as flexible as in other lemurs. One species, Testudicodas, also has a long, prehensile tail, which is naked for about 1/3 of it's length. The naked portion of it's tail is also coated with a fingernail-like protein, keratin, which provides the roosting animal some degree of protection from tree-clambering predators. It sleeps hanging upside down from it's tail, and folds into a ball, with it's head tucked under it's arms. They have very long, sharp, curved claws that they also use for protection, and a very powerful and painful bite.
Predators of these lemurs are numerous. Deinognathids, vulpemustelids and predatory bats are the most common predators. In the ocean, sea genets and sharks are their major predators. Sometimes snakes like pythons will prey on land or tree dwelling species. Sometimes, they may also be taken by other predatory lemurs, like Bromista and also by caroroos and predatory rats. The claws offer these lemurs some protection, but most of the time, they prefer to swim away from danger. Some species, like those in the Promonsamiinae and Endendrinae will take to trees when danger threatens, as sometimes a predator is determined enough to follow them into the water.