Welcome to my Metazoic site! This site discusses the existence of the creatures to come along after humans will be extinct. I first became interested in a world after man when I acquired my first copy of Dougal Dixon's After Man: A Zoology of the Future in 1992. However, I unwittingly created creatures that did not exist from the time I was about 8 years old. But it was after I obtained a copy of that book (now a collector's item) that I decided to take these same creatures I created as a child and make them more realistic in an evolutionary sense. Though it may be hard for a lot of us to grasp, humans will soon become extinct. One of the biggest factors of how this will happen is the current overpopulation rate. Which is why I don't contribute to the population. I created this world with little more than mammals fulfilling all ecological niches with the help of some friends. I even gave the era of the age after man a name, I called it the Metazoic, derived from the words for "After-era" (Meta, meaning after, and zoic meaning era). We are now in the Cenozoic era. To view all the animals I have created since I began this project, you can go to the "Meet the Mammals" section of this site. To discuss your own ideas about what you think will happen in the future world, and share your ideas with others, please feel free to leave a comment.
One more thing, some of you may find this site quite offensive, and you have a right to your own opinion. But please respect my right to have an opinion too. I'm not saying there is no GOD, I believe it was HIM who got the ball rolling. But I believe after that, evolution took over. There is so much more evidence of evolution than there is of creation. Even that going on right under our noses. Other than that, enjoy yourself and visit our many links.

Tuesday, October 23, 2018

My First Video

Though I might do more, different kinds of videos, this has been my very first attempt at doing a size-comparison type video. Of course I started with my favorite group, the deinognathids. I just want to see how well this video does on here. There's no sound. If you think I should put sound in, let me know in the comments section. But this is my first video of this kind and I might do more. Enjoy it.

Monday, July 16, 2018

Wild Animals Are Turning Nocturnal to Avoid Humans

It's true, and it's making a bit of a difference in the way wild animals today are evolving. I found this article this afternoon, and I wanted to share. It's a paid site, so I'll just copy and paste the article here so you all don't have to pay to see it. Anyway, it is implying that even animals that were not nocturnal before are now learning to do most of their activity at night. Kindof a sad thing, as you all know most of the mammals of the Metazoic I list as diurnal. Nocturnism is a rare thing among the mammals of tomorrow. It wouldn't be needed, since humans will not be around. Anyways, here is the article. I will also provide the link in case you want to sign up with them to see the article.


14 June 2018

Wild animals are turning nocturnal to keep away from humans
By Michael Le Page

Once great monsters ruled the planet, and mammals cowered in the shadows and came out only at night. Now monsters once again rule the planet, and mammals are reverting to the nocturnal habits of their distant ancestors.

“All mammals were active entirely at night, because dinosaurs were the ubiquitous terrifying force on the planet,” says Kaitlyn Gaynor of the University of California, Berkeley. “Now humans are the ubiquitous terrifying force on the planet, and we’re forcing all of the other mammals back into the night-time.”

Gaynor and her colleagues study the impact people have on wildlife. They noticed a striking pattern: animals were becoming more active at night to avoid human disturbances. When they looked in the scientific literature, they found many other groups had seen the same pattern.

Her team has now done a meta-analysis of 76 studies of 62 mammals all around the world. Almost all of them are shifting to the night to avoid us.

Into the night

Take the now-ironically-named sun bear, a vulnerable species living in south-east Asia. In areas with few people, only 19 per cent of sun bear activity occurs at night. But around a research camp in Sumatra, 90 per cent of activity is at night.

Similarly, in protected areas of Tanzania, only 17 per cent of lions’ activity is at night. Outside those areas, it’s 80 per cent.

On average, human disturbances have increased nocturnal activity in the 62 species by a factor of 1.36. In other words, animals with a 50/50 split between night and day activity in undisturbed areas typically have a 70/30 split in disturbed areas.

“There are fewer and fewer spaces wildlife can go to avoid people,” says Gaynor. “So they’re avoiding us in time because they can’t avoid us in space. This trend is going to continue as the human population grows.”

And it’s not just happening in places like cities where there are lots of people. It’s also happening near roads, rural settlements and even in places where people go hiking. What is not clear is what the consequences are.

Life in the dark

On the one hand, animals forced to do more at night might struggle compared with those in the few remaining undisturbed areas.

For instance, sable antelope in Africa usually avoid waterholes at night because predators like lions might be lying in wait. But in areas of Zimbabwe where “sports” hunters lurk by waterholes by day, they have switched to drinking at night – so overall more may be killed.

On the other hand, the shift is helping animals survive alongside people. For instance, in Chitwan in Nepal lots of tigers are managing to live in close proximity to people by being more active at night.

In this sense, the shift to the night might be a good thing. “It’s a way to share space on an increasingly crowded planet,” says Gaynor. “We take the day and they take the night.”

Adapted to darkness

Thanks to our nocturnal ancestors, many mammals still have plenty of the characteristics needed to be more active at night, says Gaynor. And they are very likely already evolving to be even better at it.

“I would expect that this is an incredibly strong selective force,” says Kate Jones of University College London, who has shown that mammals only became active during the day after the dinosaurs disappeared.

One weakness of the meta-analysis is that many of the individual studies only looked at a small number of animals, says Jones, but overall it is fairly convincing.

“It shows that we are a really big force on the planet now, like the dinosaurs were before us,” she says. “Which is really frightening.”

Jones points that artificial lights are also changing the very nature of the night. “We are lighting up the night.”

Journal reference: Science, DOI: 10.1126/science.aar7121

Saturday, June 16, 2018

Yet More Name Changes

I am currently working on the family of antelope of the Metazoic, the Megalodorcids. In the process, I made some name changes along the way. Some of the names seemed too simple, and I got some ideas from a paper I saved about how to come up with scientific names. So, what I did was I changed some of the names of some of the animals. I wanted to make them sound like they would if the animals were around today, being named by the people of their native lands. So, this is what I came up with, partially thanks to some friends and Google Translate, LOL!

Anatolopis is now Dakpil.
Maxibos is now Kaela.
Myodorcas is now Tziki.

Also some more names have been updated...

Minopileatus is now Sacouloforeas.
Eopithecus is now Neadapis.
Planodon is now Platodon. I just changed the spelling a little, it still means the same thing.

These are some of the changes to the Megalodorcidae family. I also split some of the genera into sub-genera groups. For example, Megalodorcas now has been separated into 4 subgenera: Megalodorcas, Xionibos, Afrotaurus and Paleador. The genus Azema has also been divided into 3 sub-genera: Eugazella, Chamma and Azema. These will all be listed in the latest version of the Metazoic checklist, which I will be putting up shortly.

If there are any more changes to the list, I will be putting them in this post.

Tuesday, May 29, 2018

My Current Project

I am finally taking the big leap! I am writing a book all about the animals on this site. I have even included the flightless birds and the herps. I may even include a little info about the flying birds of the Metazoic. I am working on colored pictures of these creatures, as the black and white pics I present on this site of those animals are boring!! I am even adding scenery to these pics. However, these pics will only be visible in the book. I am not going to put them on the site. I want to make this book as detailed as possible. I am also adding the chapters on this site to the book.

Best of all, I will be adding an entire section devoted to the miraculous mammals of this site to the book. I will be going into a LOT more detail about each genus and family on this site in the book. A lot more than just names and pictures. Although I do intend to use the pictures I use on this site in the book. It's just that there will be more detail about each genus in this book I am working on. I'm separating each page to discuss each genus of animal. That's how I've decided the layout of this book will be. I've been doing good so far, and it is looking nice! I will offer this book on this site, on the UMG Productions site, as they are the publishers, as well as Amazon. I will post all the links on this site when the book is finished. It may take a while to finish, as I am still currently also working on the pictures for the Meet the Mammals section, that will also be used in this book. Watch for it!

Don't expect this book to be cheap! It's going to be in full color, and that it's self is expensive. I really have no idea right now what it's going to cost, but it may be quite a bit. I'm going to cut costs as much as I can, by only offering this book in paperback. But I've also got other full-color books on UMG Productions, and they are pretty expensive. I may offer a generous discount to those who would want to collaborate on this project, but only to those people, and only through this site. Not through like Amazon. If you would like to donate your time to collaborate with this project, please use the Contact Us form and submit samples of your work. I am not that great at drawing cats or panthers, so I can use someone who can draw those animals very well. Like I said, I cannot pay anything, but I can offer you a great discount on the book once it is published. It's worth it, believe me. I hope to have this book done by the end of the year. But it also depends on how quickly I can finish the Meet the Mammals section.

I will be keeping you all up to date on the progress of this book.

Wednesday, May 9, 2018

Species Going Extinct From Climate Change?

I saw this article online, and I admit this is a few years old, but I'm going to write about it anyway. It says this animal was the first mammal to go extinct due to climate change. Unfortunately there is nothing now that can be done about climate change, it's a universe-wide process going on. But the Bramble Cay Mosaic-tailed rat (Melomys rubicola) is said to be the first mammal to go completely extinct due to climate change. Check out this article for complete info:


Bramble Cay Mosaic-tailed rat in it's natural habitat.
Now, this is just speculative. But Bramble Cay is an island off the coast of New Guinea, and is literally sinking into the ocean. I do not believe humans are responsible for climate change. We just accelerated it. You may bad-mouth me for saying this, lots of people do believe humans are the sole cause of global warming. But that is not true. It is proven now that all the planets in our solar system are going through the same thing. It happens like once every 10,000 years I think. If I am wrong, you can correct me. The island inhabited by these rats is barely 10 feet above sea level, and is not even 10 acres long. With the rise in the ocean's water level, the island is getting progressively smaller as it sinks, therefore the already limited habitat of these rats is shrinking even more.

The rodents were last seen and documented in 2007, but declared extinct in 2016 after attempts to trap more specimens failed.

We cannot stop global warming, but there are steps to take that we do not make it worse. One of the biggest things we can do is change our fuel source. I've said it before and I'll say it again, we should switch to using urine as a fuel source. It may sound funny, and if I remember correctly, the children on the SE forum laughed at me when I brought it up, but I was right! Cannot deny that. Scientists are already looking into switching to using urine as a source of fuel. It's clean, it's cheap, and does nothing to hurt the environment. Da Vinci logic!

Tuesday, April 17, 2018

Wednesday, April 4, 2018

Where Have I Been?

Been busy, that is why I haven't done the Family of the Week in a while. Been working on the Meet The Mammals section of this site and I seem to be on a roll!!! I've completed and posted 3 families over the past month. If you haven't already checked them out, please do so! They are worth a look. And I am currently working on another one that I hope to have put on the site within the next 24 hours. But so far, I have completed the Macropods, the Viverrids and the Procyonids. So, be sure to check them out. But looking at them, I realize I need many more than what I have posted. I was thinking about adding more palm (or tree) civets, and I got a couple new ideas while working on the kangaroo family. Who knows what I will work on next? Right now, I am working on the family of Metazoic beavers. I've got some new ideas to tweak for them. Not too new, I don't want to lose the characteristics Dixon set on them. But I've partially made them my own.

Right now, I am turning the Meet The Mammals section into basically nothing more than a visual checklist. Some of these animals I've never drawn or colored before, so they are just as much a surprise to me as they are to new viewers. Yeah, right now I'm about the numbers. But I do believe each animal should have it's own personality. For the time being, I am putting some pics up on the Facebook group, and there I will be discussing characteristics of these animals and what makes them unique. If you haven't joined the group yet, please do so at this link: https://www.facebook.com/groups/SpeculativeEvolution/ This is not the page, I gave that up. This is a group where you can post ideas, criticisms, other group activities, you can also meet others that share a common interest. I encourage anyone interested in speculative biology to join.

I would say I'll get back to the Family of the Week next week, but I don't know. I kindof really enjoy working on these mammal families. Whichever one I work on next will be a surprise, and based on what I feel like working on. Though I think the next family I work on, I'd like to be a marsupial family. Maybe the bandicoots. I did a lot of tweaking with them. But right now, I am busy with another family group, and I will be posting that one very soon. This is fun, but at the same time, it is difficult. But hey! If it was easy, it wouldn't be a challenge! Right?! LOL!

Monday, March 12, 2018

Family of the Week: The Metazoic Apes

The family Monaciidae is a group of ape-like pentadactyls that inhabits most of the tropical old world. Many resemble modern apes, some are more monkey-like or even lemur-like. They have nude faces, which may radiate many colors, especially in the males. Males are often larger and tougher than the females. They walk on their knuckles, much like modern apes. In most species, the nails are flat, with the exception of the predatory Castosarchus, which is the only fully carnivorous member of this family. Most members of this family are highly social and intelligent creatures. They range in size from the size of an average house cat to an 8-person cargo van. All species are diurnal. Some species retain the tailless status, while others have rather long tails. Not all are carnivorous. Most species are omnivorous, and Monacium is nearly exclusively vegetarian.

Though these animals resemble modern apes in almost every way, their closest modern relatives are baboons, like the mandrill.

This family is divided into 2 subfamilies. The Monaciinae all resemble modern apes with no external tail. The Urosimiinae more closely resembles monkeys or lemurs than apes, most have more elongated heads and long tails. The Urosimiines are also the most carnivorous of the Metazoic apes. Castosarchus is even built for killing, with long, razor-sharp claws on the hands and a 6-inch retractable claw on the first digits of each hind foot for rendering. The fangs are as much as 5 inches long, and the jaws exude an extremely powerful bite, useful for tearing the flesh off even the largest gigantelopes, and crushing tendon and bones. They hunt in large packs, much like modern lions or wolves. Larger prey is killed by simply being eaten. Smaller prey, like smaller antelope, are usually grasped with the claws and the skull or vertebrae is crushed by the ape's jaws while being disemboweled using the rear claws.

The smallest apes in the Metazoic are those in the genus Arbrariel. These tiny, delicate and graceful little apes more resemble lemurs. But they are no bigger than an average-sized house cat. The largest species in fact weighs no more than 5 pounds maximum. They are omnivorous, feeding on insects, leaves and fruits. Their lifestyle is a lot like those of modern gibbons. They swing from branch to branch and tree to tree using their arms, in a motion we refer to as "brachiation". For their small size, these animals can swing an amazing 30 feet in a single leap. The tail is also prehensile, but only used when necessary. Most of the time, it is carried curled up above the body. Also like gibbons, these diminutive apes communicate with other groups with loud vocal songs. These animals spend nearly 100% of their time in the tree canopy, almost never reaching ground levels.

The largest apes in the Metazoic are those in the genus Monacium. These apes more closely resembles modern gorillas. Like gorillas, they are almost purely vegetarian. Only very occasionally feeding on insects as a source of protein. Unlike modern gorillas, Monacium apes have colorful patterns on the head, particularly the males during the breeding season. The colors are a warning to other males that he is ready to battle for his females. These apes are not very active, so usually the bright colors on the head and face are enough to ward off other intruding males. Rarely do they engage in physical combat. After the breeding season is over, the colors fade and the males take on the usual dark black fur that is typical of these species. M. fosseyi is the largest species, standing up to 9 feet tall, and weighing almost a ton. Females of these species are about half that size.

Apes in the Metazoic have few predators, mostly because they live high up in the trees, or in some of the most remote, inaccessible areas in their range. But there are some predators that brave the elements and can capture and feed on these animals. Castosarchus, as adults, have almost no enemies. The occasional Spathodon may take a weakened adult, but usually will hesitate even to do that for fear of the ape's defenses. Arbrariel may be taken by deinognathids like Elaphictis, pythons, civets, caroroos, and predatory bats. Armasenex is famously prey for such creatures as Dryptopithecus, which often lives in close association with these apes. And Chortoperegrina, which spends nearly 100% of it's time at ground level on the savanna, is often prey for a large variety of carnivores, like mongooses, snakes, monitor lizards, crocodiles, and especially, larger deinognathids.

To view this family, follow this link.

Monday, February 26, 2018

Family of the Week: The Clawed Monkeys

The family Cheilapithecidae, consists of mainly old-world monkeys, the distinguishing characteristic of these monkeys is their claw-like fingernails, which are very sharp and curved. In some species, the claws aid in their tree-dwelling habits. In some, the claws are used in combat. All species are omnivorous, feeding on equal amounts of plant and animal matter. Some are more carnivorous, while some other species are more vegetarian. But all species in this family are omnivorous. They are all diurnal species, roosting in tree hollows or under trees or bushes at night.

The largest species are in the genus Carnopapio. The largest species, C. grandis, stands an amazing 9 feet tall. Though they do not hesitate to hunt some small animals, they mostly scavenge the kills of other larger predators. Particularly those of Castosarchus. In fact, Carnopapio always lives in close proximity to Castosarchus territories. Since Castosarchus chiefly feeds on large antelopes, there is always plenty for the Carnopapio monkeys to scavenge. Carnopapio is also bipedal, and walk around in very bird-like fashion. This gives them an advantage over most other scavengers, since they are better able to see over the tall grass of their habitat. Carnopapio lives in large groups, usually 10-15 strong.

The smallest of these monkeys is in the genus Colobonyx. These are tiny monkeys, which spend almost 100% of their time in the trees. At night, they usually find a hollow to huddle in. During the day, they scamper through the trees, able to make 20-foot jumps from one tree to another. They feed primarily on insects and fruits. Their groups are rather large too, usually numbering up to 50 individuals. Females dominate their society. These little monkeys move much like modern monkeys do, using their hind legs to push them off the branches, and gripping the landing spot with their bare pads and long claws. The tail is not prehensile, and usually held upward while the monkeys are in motion. The tail is brightly colored, and most vivid in the higher ranking animals in their group.

The most unusual monkey in this group is in the genus Alesimia, which has a long, flexible gliding membrane that unfolds when the monkey leaps, much like today's flying squirrels. Also like flying squirrels, these monkeys have flat tails and they are capable of flattening out their body, to make it easier to glide and to go much further than the average monkey can with just their legs. These monkeys live in smaller groups, usually small family groups. Their glides can carry these monkeys as far as 200 feet in a single bound. Their sharp, curved claws make landing and clinging to the tree trunks they typically land on, a breeze.

The most carnivorous member of this family is Dryptopithecus. These monkeys do not favor leaping from one branch to another, they prefer to use brachiation, like modern gibbons, when moving through the trees. Their long arms aid them in moving gracefully through the tree branches. They hunt down rather large prey, up to the size of Armasenex. They kill their prey by eating them alive. Up to 5 adults typically go out hunting game, bringing morsels home to their family, which may be waiting in nearby branches. The hunting party is led by the dominant male and female, with beta males and females lagging behind. They close in when their prey is spotted, usually with one member of the hunting team first attacking and subduing the prey from behind, and the rest of the hunting team closing in to tear the prey apart. Unlike modern hunting primates like chimpanzees and baboons, these monkeys are quiet hunters, barely making a sound when stalking their prey. They communicate most notably during a hunt, with series of short clicks that somewhat resembles morse code.

Like modern monkeys, these animals have a whole host of predators. Some of the biggest are the larger viverrids and deinognathids, such as Spathodon and Elaphictis. But they can also fall prey to larger snakes, crocodiles, predatory bats, and even monitor lizards. Because most of these monkeys live in groups, one individual is usually assigned the duty of keeping watch for predators as the rest of the groups feed, or relax. It is not always the same individual, as with all other animal groups. But it is usually given to a lower-ranking member that is still very alert and quick to react.

Monday, February 19, 2018

Family of the Week: The Earless Sea-Monkeys

The family Delphinadapidae is the most advanced group of aquatic pentadactyls in the Metazoic. Evolved from particular species of the Promonsamiidae family, these animals have dropped the musk glands present in the Promonsamiids, and have very short, but thick, fur. The tail is long and eel-like, and waves from side to side to propel the animals through the water. The ears are little more than slits on the sides of the head that have small flaps that close the ears while the animals are underwater. The foreflippers are larger than the rear flippers and are used for steering. The muzzle is long, with nostrils at the tip, with whiskers that are thick, and sensitive. The eyes are rather large, as these animals can dive pretty deep. Unlike their modern namesake, these animals do come to land to relax and breed. All sea monkey species are most active during the day, spending most of the day in the ocean, and coming to land by night to sleep on the beach. On land, these animals move a lot like modern Phocidae seals, only their foreflippers are often used to help pull them over land. Unlike seals and dolphins, the body is quite flexible, and these animals often curl up on the beach, like cats, when resting.

All species in this family are carnivorous, though while some species are strictly piscivorous, some will feed on other smaller mammals, including other sea monkeys. Phocinus has the most varied diet in this family. It is also the largest and heaviest species in this family, with a total length of about 25 feet long, including the tail. These animals use their large, powerful jaws to crush the head and neck bones of their prey, then they tear chunks out of the flesh using shaking motions underwater. Prey consists of fish, as well as oceanic birds and bats, other sea monkeys, seals, and even occasional deer who wander near the ocean.

The smallest species in the family are in the genus Delphinadapis, with a total length of about 3-4 feet long, including the tail. Like modern dolphins, these animals' preferred method of locomotion is to porpoise through the water, and they are good at it. Porpoising practically doubles their swimming speed, and it shocks fish to congregate into tight groups for easy pickings. These animals are very intelligent, much like modern dolphins. Delphinadapis is also among the fastest swimming pentadactyls, with the ability to reach speeds of up to 45 MPH. Similar in size and lifestyle is Uropinnaps. Though in Uropinnaps, the body is much longer and more slender than in Delphinadapis.

The most unusual member of this family is Leptorca, also known as the spinner sea-monkey. As their name suggests, they spin in the air as they leap out of the water. They also use this spinning motion while swimming. This is somewhat reminiscent of modern sea lions, and like sea lions, this motion helps these animals view their surroundings at all angles. They are the most slender of the sea monkeys, with the longest muzzle. The muzzle is filled with long, sharp teeth, which enables them to grab fish, squid, and even jellyfish. They will also probe in crevices to hunt prey like crabs and shrimp. The flesh at the tip of their muzzle is very sensitive, so much so that they can detect prey in their hiding places just by feeling their vibrations in the water.

Megalobracchium has the most primitive foreflippers, which still resemble the arms of land-dwelling pentadactyls. The flippers are rather short themselves, but powerful. The hands are also still capable of grasping prey, and sometimes, this sea monkey will use their flexible hands to grasp large rocks that they can use to crush open shellfish, such as crabs and lobster, and clams.

Predators of these sea monkeys are basically anything that can capture them; both on land and in the ocean. Giant sea genets are perhaps one of their deadliest enemies. As are larger sea monkeys. Sharks will also prey on these animals. Sometimes even sea-going crocodiles. On land, more often the young are taken by foxes, civets, and even deinognathids. Though rarely are the adults taken by land-based predators. Sometimes there are exceptions even to that rule. A sickened adult may be taken by the larger deinognathids. Swimming is often the best defense for these sea monkeys. Though they can use their sharp teeth and powerful jaws as defensive weapons as well.

To view this family, go to this link.

Wednesday, February 7, 2018

Family of the Week: The Rear-Clawed Lemurs

The family Pholidobatidae is unique among pentadactyl families, for having larger, scale-like folds in the soles of their feet and palms of their hands, instead of the typical fingerprint patterns we are familiar with in primates today. This feature is a little more reminiscent of the geckos of today. Other real characteristics of this family is the presence of flat nails on the hands, while the feet are tipped with sharp, curved claws, much like the marmosets and tamarins of today. Most species in this family are nocturnal and mainly omnivorous. The claws on the rear feet are used for either aid in climbing or defense, and in some species, even for dispatching large prey.

Most species in this family are ground-dwellers, mostly in arid regions. The folds in the palms and soles help grip the loose, sandy ground they live on, and in the case of the tree-dwelling species, helps them get a good grip on the tree trunks they prefer, which is so smooth, it's almost glass-like and slippery in the moist climate. The most arboreal species in this family are Pholidobata and Lepidopus, who live among specific varieties of eucalyptus trees with these extremely smooth trunks, feed on the toxic leaves, and sleep curled up in the highest branches. These lemurs are not active leapers, but spend nearly 100% of their time in the trees, almost never coming to the ground levels. These species are almost strict vegetarians, only occasionally feeding on insects and grubs.

Different species have varying levels of omnivory. Parapithecia is the most carnivorous species. Though meat only makes up less than 50% of this animal's diet. The large claws on their feet are as long as 6 inches, sharp and curved, and used to disembowel prey. The hind feet are elongate, much longer than in any other species in this family, and aid this animal in leaping up to 5 times their own body length. Occasionally, these huge lemurs will hunt such prey as antelope and therapeds. Though they scavenge kills by other animals just about as often as they hunt, and they feed on leaves, fruits and grasses more often than they consume meat.

The most varied genus is Decarus, most of which are ground-dwellers, but a few of these species also inhabit the trees, though they prefer to live at much lower levels than Pholidobata and Lepidopus. They are also much active leapers, with a much more varied diet. Most of the ground-dwellers in this genus prefer arid and savanna lands. Though D. epaulettus, D. picta and D. alienus prefer the wetter rainforest climates. D. epaulettus also lives in the highest elevations among members of this family. The ruffles on the animal's upper back help keep them warmer in the cool mountain climates.

Like the majority of lemurs, these animals are social creatures, living in small family groups, usually consisting of a dominant male, a few females, a subordinate male and young. Communication consists of calls. Pholidobata has the loudest calls, resembling those of a child crying. Each individual call lasts as long as a minute, and are generally given by the males. Parapithecia and it's close relatives are almost strictly ground-dwelling, only occasionally retreating to the trees when danger threatens. They communicate with other families with loud, whooping calls that carry all across several miles of savanna. Breeding for these animals occurs only once a year, and usually a single cub is born to each female, though all females in the family unit may be bred at the same time.

Predators of these lemurs are quite a few. Various carnivores like foxes, mongooses and vulpemustelids may take these lemurs if they can capture them. Large, predatory bats may also take the tree-dwelling species. Deinognathids are also major predators of these lemurs. Spathodon is the greatest enemy of Parapithecia and it's closest relatives. In defense, these animals will run, kicking back with their sharp claws, most of the time, they will seek refuge up a tree, or in burrows or bushes. To view this family, follow this link.